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Medical Xpress


3 hour 46 minute

Age, sex, APOE genotype identify alzheimer's, dementia risk

(HealthDay)—Age, sex and apolipoprotein E (APOE) genotype can identify groups at high 10-year risk for Alzheimer's disease and all dementia, according to a study published Sept. 4 in CMAJ, the journal of the Canadian Medical Association. Katrine L. Rasmussen, M.D., Ph.D., from Copenhagen University Hospital in Denmark, and colleagues used data from the Copenhagen General Population Study (2003 to 2014), the Copenhagen City Heart Study (1991 to 1994 and 2001 to 2003), and the Danish National Patient Registry (up to Nov. 10, 2014) to determine the absolute 10-year risk of by age, sex, and APOE genotype. The researchers found that...
3 hour 49 minute

HbA1c variability is a strong predictor of mortality in T2DM

(HealthDay)—Hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c) variability may be a more powerful predictor of all-cause mortality with type 2 diabetes than average HbA1c, according to a study published in the August issue of Diabetes, Obesity and Metabolism. Emanuela Orsi, M.D., from the University of Milan, and colleagues assessed three to five HbA1c measures for 8,290 patients during the two-year period (seen at nine centers) before enrollment in the Renal Insufficiency And Cardiovascular Events Italian multicenter study. The researchers found that the measures of HbA1c variability increased according to quartiles of average HbA1c, and vice versa. There was an association between average HbA1c and...
5 hour 14 minute

Fewer American teens having sex, most using birth control

(HealthDay)—In a finding that should ease parents' minds, new research shows that fewer American teens are having sex and most of those who do are using some form of birth control. But scientists also found that has become more common among students and condom use has declined. "Many become sexually active during high school," said study co-author Laura Lindberg, a principal research scientist at the Guttmacher Institute, the nonprofit research organization that published the report on Sept. 20. "It is critical to ensure that all young people have access to comprehensive sexuality education and sexual and reproductive health care services...

5 hour 22 minute

Stiffening of blood vessels may point to dementia risk

Arterial stiffness among people with mild cognitive impairments could put them at higher risk for progressing to dementia, which may include Alzheimer's disease, according to a new study exploring the connection between the brain and vascular health. The French study, published Friday in the American Heart Association journal Hypertension, looked at data on 375 elderly people with such as memory issues and slight declines in abilities. Within 4.5 years, about 28 percent of the patients developed dementia. Researchers considered several factors for the progression and found that higher pulse wave velocity, which measures the elasticity of arteries, was a likely...
5 hour 27 minute

Low vitamin D levels tied to interstitial lung disease

(HealthDay)—Vitamin D deficiency is independently associated with subclinical interstitial lung disease (ILD) and its progression, according to a study recently published in the Journal of Nutrition. Samuel M. Kim, M.D., from the Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine in Baltimore, and colleagues used data from 6,302 participants in the Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis who had baseline serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25[OH]D) concentrations and computed tomography imaging partial lung fields spanning over 10 years. The researchers found that 33 percent of participants had replete (≥30 ng/mL), 35 percent intermediate (20 to
5 hour 33 minute

Sensitivity for CRC detection up with decreasing FIT threshold

(HealthDay)—Programmatic sensitivity for colorectal cancer (CRC) detection increases modestly with decreasing fecal immunochemical test (FIT) positivity thresholds, according to a study published online Sept. 18 in the Annals of Internal Medicine. Kevin Selby, M.D., from Kaiser Permanente Northern California in Oakland, and colleagues identified programmatic (multitest) FIT performance characteristics and optimal FIT quantitative hemoglobin positivity thresholds among adults aged 50 to 75 years who were eligible for screening. A total of 640,859 individuals completed baseline quantitative FIT (2013 to 2014) and were followed for two years. The researchers found that 75 percent of participants had at least one additional FIT...

6 hour 36 minute

Latest research hints at predicting autism risk for pregnant mothers

Researchers at Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute—led by Juergen Hahn, professor and head of biomedical engineering—are continuing to make remarkable progress with their research focused on autism spectrum disorder (ASD). A recent paper authored by Hahn and Jill James from the University of Arkansas for Medical Sciences (UAMS) in the journal Research in Autism Spectrum Disorders discusses their work on predicting with approximately 90 percent accuracy whether a pregnant mother has a 1.7 percent or a tenfold increased risk of having a child diagnosed with ASD. Currently there is no test for that can predict the probability of having a child that...
6 hour 38 minute

AFib linked to family history in blacks, Latinos

Despite being the most common heart arrhythmia disorder in the U.S., there is not much research on the causes of atrial fibrillation in minority populations. And while researchers know that black and Latino individuals are less likely than whites to develop the condition, which is also known as AFib, they cannot yet fully explain why these groups are paradoxically more likely to experience higher rates of complications and even death as a result of AFib. Thanks to the development of a large, diverse registry of , researchers at the University of Illinois at Chicago who have been studying AFib in...
6 hour 39 minute

Researchers deploy novel clinical trial regimen for glioblastoma

Combating glioblastoma remains a major challenge due the complex nature of these tumors, the inability of drugs to penetrate the brain tissue, and lack of correlation between animal models and the human condition. In a novel first-in-human phase 0 clinical trial study led by Dr. Nader Sanai at Barrow Neurological Institute, in collaboration with Karmanos Cancer Institute and Translational Genomics Institute, a drug called AZD1775 was shown to penetrate the tumor providing first evidence of clinically-relevant activity of this drug in human glioblastoma. This study was published in August 2018 issue of the Clinical Cancer Research journal. The study not...

6 hour 49 minute

FDA researchers report first evidence of ESBL producing E. Coli in US retail meat

A new study using antimicrobial susceptibility testing and whole genome sequencing to test extended spectrum beta lactamase (ESBL) producing E. coli isolated from cattle for food production and from various retail meat products has shown that all were resistant to at least three antimicrobial classes. They also carried various types of CTX-M type ESBL genes, which are increasingly common in clinical patients worldwide and whose presence in food-producing animals and retail meat supplies might contribute to a greater incidence of infections. These findings are reported in Microbial Drug Resistance. Daniel Tadesse, U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA, Laurel, MD) and...
6 hour 52 minute

Boosting emotional intelligence in physicians can protect against burnout

A Loyola Medicine study demonstrates that an educational curriculum for physicians in training improves their emotional intelligence, which may help protect against burnout. Before and after completing this educational intervention, doctors took a test measuring their emotional . There were significant increases in their scores for overall emotional intelligence, stress management and overall wellness. The study by Ramzan Shahid, MD, Jerold Stirling, MD, and William Adams, Ph.D., is published in the journal Advances in Medical Education and Practice. Teaching emotional intelligence skills "may improve stress management skills, promote wellness and prevent burnout in resident physicians," the researchers wrote. Physician burnout...
7 hour 2 minute

Genomic study brings us closer to precision medicine for type 2 diabetes

Most patients diagnosed with type 2 diabetes are treated with a "one-size-fits-all" protocol that is not tailored to each person's physiology and may leave many cases inadequately managed. A new study by scientists at the Broad Institute of MIT and Harvard and Massachusetts General Hospital (MGH) indicates that inherited genetic changes may underlie the variability observed among patients in the clinic, with several pathophysiological processes potentially leading to high blood sugar and its resulting consequences. By analyzing genomic data with a computational tool that incorporates genetic complexity, the researchers identified five distinct groups of DNA sites that appear to drive...